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The temperature of the air and soil in the greenhouse is very important for growing any crop, and therefore, it is necessary to know exactly not only its limits for berries, vegetables or herbs, but also the methods of regulating the “local climate”.
Temperature is one of the decisive factors affecting a lot of plant life processes.: crop growth, absorption of moisture and useful elements, the quality and quantity of the crop, the time of its collection, the possibility of disease and so on. Therefore, each summer resident should know the temperature conditions for those crops that are grown on his site in greenhouse conditions, and also know ways to raise or lower the temperature in the greenhouse, when it is necessary.
First of all, we want to answer questions from readers of our site and tell what the temperature in the greenhouse should be for cucumbers and tomatoes. This is really important to know.
Temperature for greenhouse tomatoes
The optimal indicators are + 20 + 22 ° C if the day is bright and sunny, and + 19 + 20 ° C if the day is cloudy. Night temperature - + 16 + 17 ° С. A similar regimen is suitable before the beginning of the fruiting period of tomatoes. When it begins, the temperature maximum can reach + 26 + 32 ° C, but if it is hotter, then even the best flowering will be of little use. Under such conditions, many necessary processes, such as photosynthesis, slow down, and pollen grains do not germinate.
During the flowering period, temperature indicators should not be allowed to fall below + 14 + 16 ° C, since the tomato will cease to bloom.
In a certain period of time, greenhouse tomato can go into rapid growth, and this process must be stopped by stabilizing the temperature at + 25 + 26 ° С. If you don’t do this, the bush can simply increase the vegetative mass, from which you definitely won’t get the expected harvest.
After the first fruits are removed from the bush, the temperature regime drops to + 16 + 17 ° C in order to stabilize the growth of fruits and their ripening.
Optimal conditions for greenhouse cucumbers
Even before the appearance of the first shoots, the containers with crops are kept warm for a few days - + 25 + 28 ° С. When the first greens breaks onto the surface, the cover is removed, and the crops are set in a well-lit place, where the temperature is kept within + 20 + 22 ° С. If we talk about night indicators, then in the first 3-5 days after the emergence of cucumber seedlings, they should be + 16 + 17 ° C to prevent unnecessary stem growth and extension of seedlings, then they are kept within + 19 + 20 ° C.
Sharp temperature extremes must not be allowed. This, as well as a sharp cooling in the greenhouse, can lead to diseases, depression, plant death or simply loss of crop.
Why climate control is needed in the greenhouse
It's simple, because each plant has its own optimal growing temperature, which means that the optimal “weather” in the greenhouse must be established for each crop, taking into account changes, night and day changes. Here is a simple example that will help to interpret this position. Take open fields with vegetable crops, different crops. And so, in the hot summer, on one field an excellent harvest, and on the other - some losses. The whole problem is that the temperature is stable for these fields day and night, that is, different cultures get the same temperature. But, one culture needs indicators at + 23 + 26 ° C, and they are stable, and another requires a temperature lower. As a result, there is a crop on the first field, and on the second, where weather conditions do not correspond to high-quality cultivation, there is no crop or it is very weak.
So, the correct regulation of climatic conditions in the greenhouse building, separately for each crop, leads to the expected result. If the indicators independently fluctuate, then there is no particular sense from the structure, because with a sharp cooling, the plants absorb nutrients much worse, with excessive warming the plant burns or simply grows.
Constant monitoring of the greenhouse climate gives plants an excellent opportunity to please the host - to develop the root system and stably absorb nutrients, gain proper growth, shape the fruit, show timely ripening, and so on.
Why do I need a temperature sensor
The sensor will help determine how much the correct mode you observe for growing a particular greenhouse crop, because judging by different plants, the temperature limits for growing them in a greenhouse can be from + 16 + 25 ° C during the day, to + 12 + 19 ° C at night. The temperature of the soil should almost always be kept at + 14 + 25 ° C. If there are serious differences, for example, phosphorus starvation, poor absorption of moisture by the root system of plants, wilt, excessive growth of greenery, loss of flowering, and so on, can begin.
Therefore, if you are seriously engaged in greens, vegetables, berries, flowers and other plants, you need a reasonable system that will help to stabilize the temperature in the greenhouse and keep it at the right level for as long as it takes. For this, any equipment that can handle the automatic adjustment of the greenhouse climate is suitable. Naturally, this pleasure is not cheap, but if you undertook a serious business, you must understand the level of costs.
But if your greenhouse is not of an industrial type and there is simply no point in investing serious money in it, you will need to remember only a few points forever:
- What is the optimum temperature in a greenhouse building (made of polycarbonate, glass, and so on);
- How to increase temperature indicators;
- How to lower them.
Climate control methods in the greenhouse
If automatic regulation of the greenhouse climate is not affordable, you can always get by with simpler methods. It is also important that some of them are much more efficient than a reasonable technique, especially if we are talking about extreme changes in temperature indicators and the speed of this process.
How to raise the temperature in the greenhouse?
- It is possible to arrange additional temporary shelter with a film, with the help of which to create the so-called air gap, which will practically not respond to the environment. Such isolation will save extra degrees for crops;
- A similar method that will reduce heat loss, as well as stabilize the temperature at one point. You will need to create a secondary greenhouse inside, above the plants themselves, by installing a cover on the wire, reinforcement, wooden frame, etc. Thus, you can create a limited amount of air that will keep the temperature for a long time. But here it must be remembered that the film for the cover should be perforated, the cover should be aired in warm weather, and removed during hot days, so as not to increase the temperature values to dangerous limits;
- You can mulch the soil than raise the temperature of the soil in the greenhouse. But the mulch must be dense and black in order to attract heat, for example, from a spunbond or a plastic film.
Stabilization of temperature is very good, but overheating also adversely affects plants, and therefore we recommend that you constantly monitor the regime and immediately take the necessary actions if the indicators begin to grow rapidly.
How to reduce performance?
- It is worth starting with practical advice - not to build very long greenhouses;
- It will be necessary to ensure the possibility of free access of air through the gables. Thus, at any time you can bring down about 8-10 ° C;
- You can spray the greenhouses with a chalk solution, for the preparation of which it will be necessary to dilute 2 kg of chalk in a bucket of water, adding a little milk (300-400 g). After spraying, the temperature indicators of air decrease. Do not use only emulsion paints or quicklime, which practically do not wash and spoil the film, making it dull;
- Helps and plentiful watering of crops in the morning.
Naturally, there are still a lot of ways to raise or lower the temperature, and they are quite popular and in demand.
Greenhouse temperature control (video)
Constantly monitor the greenhouse climate and be sure to observe the temperature regimes, each of which is firmly attached to an individual plant. This will help to grow a good harvest!
The temperature regime in the greenhouse (20 photos)