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Ziziphus (unabi) in central Russia: planting and care, cultivation

Ziziphus (unabi) in central Russia: planting and care, cultivation



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The experience of growing ziziphus in the Moscow region is very important for gardeners who prefer planting plants that are both exotic and useful in their area. To understand what kind of plant we are talking about, you should list all the names. Ziziphus is known as unabi, jujuba, chulon, ylandjida, Chinese date, jojoba.

At least one of them is known to every lover of fruit crops of the subtropical region. Ziziphus belongs to the Krushinovy ​​family. Fruits are considered the value of the plant, although unabi is also very decorative. For medium-sized regions, it is typical to grow low-growing picturesque species of ziziphus, the height of which does not exceed 2-3 m.

Planting and caring for unabi in the regions

Previously, it was believed that the Chinese date is not able to survive in central Russia, and even more so to bear fruit. Currently, winter-hardy varieties have been bred, which gardeners grow in areas with a continental climate.

Before planting Chinese dates in their region, the gardener needs to know information about the culture. Because not only the climatic conditions of the region will have to be taken into account, but also the growing season of the variety. Ziziphus species are subdivided into groups according to ripening periods:

  1. Early ripe. Such varieties of ziziphus ripen in autumn - late September or early October.
  2. Mid-season. Such unabis are distinguished by a later ripening - the second half of October.
  3. Late ripening. Ziziphus fruits are ready for tasting from the end of October until the first snows in December.

Proceeding from this, late, and sometimes mid-season varieties of ziziphus should not be planted in the Moscow region and the middle lane. In this case, the plant will not have time to give nutritious fruits due to the rapid onset of cold weather.

The shrub planting algorithm does not differ much for the regions. The only difference is the date care items, which depend on the weather conditions.

The temperate continental climate dictates its own conditions for growing dates. For the regions of the middle lane and the Moscow region, shrub varieties of ziziphus or grafted onto high stems are suitable. The ripening period of unabi takes 2-4 weeks, with cross-pollination, flowering is long - up to 2 months.

Variety selection

Although there are over 400 known varieties of unabi, not all are suitable for gardeners in cooler areas. The optimal varieties of ziziphus for the middle zone and the Moscow region are early frost-resistant species. They manage to bear fruit before the onset of frost. Among the most famous are Vakhsh, Candy, Mori dzher, Khurman, Sinit, Chinese 60, Lang, Ta-Yan-Zao. The most frost-resistant large-fruited are Burnim, Ulduz, Sochi 1, Ordubadi, Zogal, Chinese-93. These types of Chinese dates can withstand temperatures as low as -29 ° C.

If you plant medium-fruited or small-fruited, they will finish the growing season even earlier. Small-fruited ziziphus are the most productive and hardy. It is best to grow a date from a stone yourself.

Important! Unabi fruits grown in the northern regions have a higher concentration of vitamin C.

Landing dates (in the Moscow region and in the middle lane)

The heat dependence of unabi is well known. After all, the homeland of the Chinese date is the subtropics. Therefore, the spring planting of ziziphus is recommended for gardeners of the Moscow region and middle regions of Russia. If the plant is planted in the fall, then the rapid onset of cold weather does not allow it to take root guaranteed. At best, the ziziphus seedling will freeze, at worst it will not survive the harsh winter.

Unabi start planting in March, a more precise date is determined by the weather conditions of the current year.

Site selection and soil preparation

When choosing a place, the preferences of the shrub are taken into account. In the shade, ziziphus almost does not grow, so it will not be possible to wait for the harvest. Even with flowers, the fruit does not set. Culture loves good lighting. Therefore, the sunniest part of the site is chosen for the ziziphus.

Another requirement is the absence of drafts and cold winds. The southwestern and southern slopes are considered suitable locations. You can place unabi near buildings on level ground. The main thing is not to plant Chinese dates in the lowlands.

The roots of the plant are powerful, so you should choose a place where there is no close occurrence of groundwater.

In order for the fruiting and growth of the shrub to be good, it is necessary to provide it with high-quality soil. Ziziphus prefers loamy, moderately moist soil. It should be fertile, but an overabundance of nutrients is not acceptable. The culture will react with strong leaf growth, but will not bear fruit. If you plant a date on dry and poor soil, then the harvest will be just as meager. On acidic soils, lime (300 g / m2) is added, sand (10 kg / m2) is added to clay soils.

The preparation of the pit for the ziziphus is done in advance. You need to dig a cube with sides of 1 m. Then add manure (3-4 buckets) and complex mineral components (200 g).

The pits are located at a distance of 3-4 m from each other. A single planting of ziziphus is advisable only for decorative purposes. The plant is self-fertile, cross-pollination is needed for fruiting. Therefore, to get the harvest of dates, several varieties of unabi will have to be planted.

Landing rules

A step-by-step description of the process looks like this:

  1. A drainage layer of 5-10 cm is laid from crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick.
  2. The ziziphus pit is filled with fertile soil by 2/3 of its volume.
  3. Form a mound.
  4. A zizyphus seedling is installed on it, the roots are straightened. If the seedling is purchased from the ZKS, then they transfer it along with an earthen lump.
  5. Sprinkle with soil, shaking the unabi and compacting the earth. This must be done so that voids do not form between the roots.
  6. The unabi inoculation site is raised 5 cm above the ground surface.
  7. A watering groove is formed.
  8. Pour 20 liters of water onto one Chinese date.
  9. The ziziphus tree trunk circle is mulched with a layer of straw or hay 10 cm thick.

Important! A ziziphus seedling is not shortened after planting.

In the first year, the plant forms a root system, and the vegetative part grows weakly. More on planting Chinese dates:

Features of growing ziziphus in the Moscow region

Landing is the main focus of the boarding. If you plant unabi in a windy place in the Moscow region, then the shrub will suffer from breakage of shoots and an additional decrease in temperature from the wind.

In the fall, it is recommended to sow siderates, then place the date seedlings in a checkerboard pattern to improve crown lighting.

Several varieties should be planted to ensure cross-pollination of Ziziphus. For example, through one tree.

Watering is needed for young unabis. The first year, date seedlings need 20 liters of water 5-7 times during the season. Adult dates are good at getting water from their roots and do not need frequent watering. On the contrary, when heavy rains pour down, the root system of the ziziphus is covered with plastic wrap. Otherwise, waterlogging will lead to cracking of the fruit. But if there is no rain for a long time, then you need to water the dates 4-5 times per season. At the time of ripening of dates, watering is stopped.

Loosening and mulching are done after watering.

For the first 3 years, the ziziphus has enough nutrients introduced during planting. When the shrub is 4-5 years old, you need to apply 18 g of nitrogen annually in the spring, 10 g of potassium and 12 g of phosphorus in the fall. Then, from the 6th year, double the dose of elements. Foliar spraying of the unabi crown with Vympel (20 ml / 10 l) is performed 2-3 times per season with a frequency of 3-4 weeks. This improves the taste of the date.

Pruning is needed for weakly branching unabi varieties to give the crown volume. Strongly branched ones are thinned out, especially in the inner part of the crown, to improve illumination. Unabi pruning is done in May to see new shoots and any damage. Adult unabis can be trimmed in March.

Rules for growing ziziphus in central Russia

Planting and caring for unabi in the middle lane does not differ much from the Moscow region. Dates tolerate the climate of the middle zone well enough if all activities are performed correctly:

  1. Watering is needed unabi 3-4 times during the season before the formation of ovaries. Then the plant does not need excess moisture. The frequency of watering is increased for young seedlings up to 5-6 times. After absorbing moisture, the soil must be loosened and mulched. It is not recommended to dig up the unabi near-trunk zone.
  2. It is enough to apply top dressing 2 times per season. You can use organics and mineral complexes. In the spring, unabi needs nitrogen components, in the fall, phosphorus and potassium. This will allow the plant to winter well.
  3. Crown formation is performed without a central shoot. It is cut to 80 cm in the first year of the life of the ziziphus. Branches of the second order are formed from the 3rd year, they are shortened by 2-3 buds. 2-4 of the most developed branches are left, the rest are cut out. In addition to such a scheme, the unabi crown is necessarily thinned out and dry or broken shoots are removed.

All activities are adjusted depending on the weather.

Preparing culture for winter

The southern plant must be prepared for the cold season. To do this, young seedlings from spring are placed in a small greenhouse without a roof, pulling a transparent film over the supports. In autumn, the plant is spud up to 1/3 of the height, the upper shoots are wrapped with covering material. Adult Chinese dates are sheltered only in areas where temperature drops reach -35 ° C. To do this, the roots of the unabi are spud and the plant is wrapped in non-woven material. Ziziphus's regenerative abilities are quite high. The shrub quickly recovers even when the shoots freeze.

Conclusion

Gardeners publish the experience of growing ziziphus in the Moscow region on forums or articles. This information is very helpful to read before planting a Chinese date. In this case, the plant will take root well and will bear fruit for many years.


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