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Zvezdovik four-bladed (Geastrum four-bladed): photo and description

Zvezdovik four-bladed (Geastrum four-bladed): photo and description



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Four-bladed or four-bladed starfish, four-bladed Geastrum, four-bladed earth star, Geastrum quadrifidum are the names of one species of the Geastrov family. Does not represent nutritional value, belongs to inedible mushrooms. It is listed in the Red Book of the Tver and Voronezh regions as a rare species.

Geastrum four-bladed - a mushroom with an unusual structure of the fruiting body

What does a four-bladed starfish look like?

At the beginning of development, the reproductive part is underground, the peridium is closed, rounded - up to 2 cm in diameter, the white surface is covered with micellar hyphae. In adulthood, the size of the fruiting body increases to 5 cm, the peridium, when it emerges from the soil, divides from four to seven pointed blades. The four-layer structure consists of the outer part - exoperidium and the inner part - endoperidium.

External characteristics of the four-bladed starlet:

  1. Exoperidium consists of two or three layers, torn to the middle from the upper part into uneven lobes.
  2. At the beginning of the opening, it looks like a bowl with non-absorbent, upright edges. Then the surface is divided into parts, the blades are bent to the ground and raise the fruit body above the surface.
  3. The outer coating is light, of a felt structure with fragments of soil and residues of mycelium, peels off and falls off over time.
  4. The flesh of the central layer of exoperidium is dense, white and tough.
  5. The topmost layer falls off over time, leaving torn areas.
  6. The surface is filmy or leathery, darkens over time to a brown color and cracks.
  7. The endoperidium of the fruiting body is a gleb, spherical or ovoid, up to 1 cm wide, 1.4 cm high, covered with a protective and tough velvety film with an opening for the ejection of spores.
  8. At the initial stage of development of a rounded formation, the color is light gray, in mature mushrooms it is black or dark brown.
  9. The gleb is attached to a short post with a felt covering; there is a pronounced protrusion at the junction.

The spore powder is dark gray with an olive tint; when pressed, it scatters.

The color of the top of the inside is white with a clear border around the circle

Where and how it grows

Four-lobed starfish is a rare species that grows on sandy well-drained soils, among fallen needles on a leaf litter, near abandoned anthills. It is found in all types of woodlands, which include conifers and broad-leaved species.

Fruiting in autumn, the first mushrooms appear in August, the latter are found in October. They grow in small groups, often singly. The distribution area in Russia covers:

  • European and central part;
  • Altai;
  • North Caucasus;
  • Eastern Siberia;
  • Leningrad region.

Is the mushroom edible or not

Small four-lobed starfish with a rigid structure of the fruiting body is not suitable for culinary use. It has no nutritional value. In biological reference books, the species is listed in the category of inedible mushrooms.

Doubles and their differences

The vaulted starfish belongs to the twins of the four-bladed geastrum. Outwardly, mushrooms are very similar - the way, place and time of growth are the same for them. A twin is determined by longer blades - up to 9 cm, at the beginning of growth the peridium is yellow-brown in color and opens into two layers. The pulp of an unripe mushroom is white, dense.

Important! The species is classified as conditionally edible, only young specimens are used in cooking.

Vaulted starfish has antiseptic properties, it is used in folk medicine

The crowned sprocket, in contrast to the four-bladed, breaks up to 10 blades when opening. Peridium does not exfoliate; in young specimens, the color is gray with a glossy surface; with age, the color becomes dark brown. The species can be found in parks among low grass under bushes. It is not used in cooking, the mushroom is inedible.

The inner part of the starworm topped with a monochromatic dark gray or brown color

Conclusion

The four-bladed starfish is a rare specimen with an exotic appearance, belongs to the inedible category. In many countries, including Russia, it is listed in the Red Book. The cosmopolitan mushroom bears fruit in late summer on the coniferous litter of mixed forests.


Watch the video: How to Identify the Collared Earthstar: A Beginners Guide (August 2022).

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