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Evergreen trees dramatically transform the design of the site. This is especially true of the plant, the type of which corresponds to the sonorous name - balsam fir Brilliant. Its bright green colors are pleasing to the eye in summer and give positive energy in winter. Gardens, roofs, terraces decorated with a plant enliven the space, blending in perfectly with the surrounding landscape.
Description of balsamic fir Diamond
Balsam fir is a coniferous plant belonging to the pine family. In natural conditions, it grows in North America - Canada and the USA, likes well-lit areas, protected from winds and drafts. Refers to frost-resistant species.
The fir has a miniature size, its height does not exceed 50 cm, it grows slowly, per year - no more than 4 cm.The crown of the plant is spherical or slightly flattened, with a diameter of about 0.8 m.The needles are bright green, soft, dense and long - from 8 to 20 mm, with curved edges. The bark of the tree is smooth, pleasant ash color, no cracks. The buds are amazingly beautiful, purple in color, arranged vertically.
The root system of Brilliant balsam fir is compact, which allows it to be grown both in soil and in tubs and containers. The tree has a pleasant delicate coniferous aroma. Its life span is up to 300 years.
Fir Brilliant in landscape design
The growth and development of balsam fir Brilliant is negatively affected by polluted air, therefore, most often the plant is used for landscaping suburban areas and territories.
A beautiful and original tree is used to decorate landscape compositions. It is placed on lawns, flower beds, and is used to decorate alpine hills. Fir trees planted along the alley look very stylish in rocky gardens.
Since the balsam fir Brilliant has dwarf sizes, it can be placed both in individual and in group plantings.
The plant goes well with other conifers - thuja, cypress, juniper and deciduous species - birch, chestnut, maple. Perhaps the location on children's playgrounds, since the soft needles of the plant are safe for children.
Due to the compactness of the crown and root system, it is permissible to grow in a container and locate it in the place where the Diamond fir looks the most advantageous. Judging by the reviews of the owners, their photos and descriptions, the Brilliant balsam fir is gaining great popularity and love among gardeners, who are happy to use it in decorating their site to create comfort, brightness and style.
Planting and caring for balsamic fir Diamond
Fir balsamic diamond is an unpretentious conifer, but you must follow the rules when planting a plant and caring for it:
- planting in the ground is carried out at the 5-year-old age of the seedling;
- the site must be sunny, protected from the winds;
- a place where there is a likelihood of water stagnation is not suitable for fir;
- the use of drainage is mandatory;
- the optimal time for planting is spring;
- watering should be regular for young seedlings and adult plants;
- correct mulching of the soil;
- regular sanitary pruning.
Seedling and planting plot preparation
When starting to plant a balsam fir Brilliant, it is worth taking care of the protection of the young seedling. The plant cannot withstand strong winds because it has not yet taken root completely. For this purpose, it is worth installing protection in the form of a low fence for a period of at least a year.
The open sun is also not useful for fir, the direct sunlight of which can cause burns to the seedling. You can solve the problem by placing the plant in partial shade or by creating a light shelter. In order for the adaptation and engraftment to be painless, the planting dates should be scheduled for the spring. An autumn planting can end in failure for a shrub, since it will not have time to take root and die.
The choice of a balsam fir seedling Diamond must be treated responsibly:
- do not buy a tree younger than four or five years old,
- the needles should be uniform in density, bright green in color;
- it is good when the roots are hidden in the damp coma of the container earth;
- when buying, carefully examine the plant for dry shoots, damage or disease.
For balsam fir Brilliant, fertile, drained, moist lands are suitable, it is possible next to water bodies, with loamy soil, moderately permeable and retaining moisture.
In advance, two weeks in advance, it is necessary to prepare the soil and holes for the seedlings.
The holes should correspond to the size of the root system along with a clod of earth. On average, their depth is at least 80 cm, and their width is about 60 cm.
For planting balsam fir Brilliant, it is better to choose a warm, cloudy day, with a little quiet rain.
Pits should be spilled abundantly with water, at least two buckets per hole. To prevent stagnation of moisture near the root system, it is necessary to create drainage. Broken brick, crushed stone, pebbles are good, which are poured into the hole with a layer of about 20 cm.
The soil mixture for the pit is prepared in advance. It includes:
Add 10 kg of sawdust and 200 g of nitrophosphate to the mixture.
Prepared soil should be poured into the pit halfway. After a couple of weeks, starting planting, place the fir together with an earthen clod on a soil mound, without exposing the root system and without destroying the clod. Fill the remaining voids with soil and compact so that the neck is flush with the soil surface. Water the seedling abundantly.
When planting an alley of balsamic fir, a distance of 4 m should be observed, in group plantings - 3 m.
There are a few little secrets to keep in mind:
- In order for a clod of earth not to crumble from the roots or from the container, the day before planting, they should be soaked with water.
- You can leave the paper packaging or burlap in which the lump is wrapped: after a while they will rot.
- A palm should enter between the walls of the pit and the lump, only in this case the dimensions correspond to the seedling.
Watering and feeding
Although the balsam fir Brilliant loves moist soil, it does not tolerate excess moisture well. In the first months after transplanting, the seedlings must be watered regularly, avoiding drying out. To make young plants easier to endure stress, it is worthwhile to carry out daily spraying of the crown. The best time for the procedure is early morning or late evening. In the daytime, the needles can get burned. In an adult state, balsam fir Brilliant needs to be watered so often, but the soil should not be allowed to dry out.
The first feeding is carried out during planting by adding at least 300 g of nitroammophoska to the bottom of the hole. Further, fertilizers are applied annually in spring. After feeding, the fir is watered abundantly. It is worth monitoring the acidity of the soil and, when it decreases, apply a complex mineral fertilizer. It will not only restore the acid balance, but also affect the color brightness and size of buds and needles.
Mulching and loosening
Having planted balsam fir Brilliant, you should monitor the cleanliness of the trunk circle, remove weeds in time, preventing their spread and reproduction. Regular loosening of the soil helps not only to combat weeds, but also to improve the supply of air to the root system. The formation of a crust on the soil must not be allowed, and if it appears, loosening to a depth of no more than 10 - 15 cm, taking care not to damage the fir roots, spreading in the upper layers of the soil.
In order to retain moisture, prevent the soil from drying out, maintain it in a loose state, immediately after planting, mulching is carried out around the trunk of the plant. The protective layer needs to be replenished several times per season, especially in spring and autumn. Its optimal thickness will be 8 cm or more. Peat, sawdust, crushed bark are used as mulch. It is very important that the mulch does not touch the trunk of the fir and does not cover the root collar.
Pruning is easy for gardeners. For the first 15 years after planting, the balsam fir Diamond should not be subjected to this procedure in order to form a crown, especially since the culture grows slowly. When drying out, deformation of branches or damage to fir by diseases, it is necessary to carry out sanitary removal of such shoots. The best time to prune is before the sap begins to flow. The crown of a balsamic diamond is shaped with garden shears. They must be sharp and disinfected. When pruning, no more than one third of the branches are removed so that the plant does not stop growing and developing.
Preparing for winter
Balsam fir Brilliant is a frost-resistant coniferous plant that can withstand low temperatures, but at a young age its seedlings need protection. It is especially important to cover the plant in the year it is planted or transplanted.
For protection, spruce branches are used, which are convenient to cover both the root system and the crown. After snowfalls, you can fall asleep with snow until the spring thaws. Gradually, the seedling grows stronger and after a few years no longer needs additional protection.
Before wintering for a shrub, you must perform a number of actions:
- Water the plant abundantly.
- Mulch the fir tree trunk circle.
- Leave a "window" in the shelter for the penetration of sunlight and the continuation of photosynthesis.
- In the spring - spray the crown with water and shade from the sun to restore the quality of the needles.
There are two ways to propagate the Diamond Balsam Fir: by seed or by rooting cuttings.
You can collect seeds from a plant that is at least 8 years old: only at this age do cones appear. Unripe buds are plucked, dried at home and seeds are removed. They can be sown in the fall or kept in a cold place until spring, after which they can be soaked for 30 minutes. in a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate and rinsing, put them to swell for 24 hours. Swollen balsam fir seeds are placed in wet sand on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Sowing seeds is carried out in March. A layer of sawdust is poured onto the sandy loam soil, the seeds are spread, covered with another layer of sawdust and watered abundantly. From above, you need to make a cover with a film, while periodically opening it and airing the greenhouse. After germination, the film is removed, and the seedlings are regularly fed and moistened. This method is very time consuming and is rarely used at home.
Propagation of balsamic fir by cuttings is an easier procedure, for this it is necessary:
- In April, cut the cuttings with the apical bud from the annual shoots.
- Remove the needles from the bottom of the cutting.
- Prepare a greenhouse with soil mixture.
- Soak the planting material in a solution of a root formation stimulator.
- Plant the cuttings at a 45o angle.
- Cover with foil.
- Water periodically.
- In August, after the rooting of the plant, remove the film.
- After a year, plant a seedling in a permanent place.
Diseases and pests of fir Diamond
It is difficult to detect diseases of the balsam fir Diamond at a glance. In order not to miss the first symptoms, it is necessary to periodically inspect the plant in order to identify yellowed needles, dried shoots. If root pathology has appeared, this will be signaled by the smell of rotten leaves from the soil. The needles fall off during fungal infections, the development of which should be stopped with copper sulfate.
In the fight against pests and for prophylactic purposes, insecticides are used, with which the balsamic fir Brilliant is treated in early spring.
Among the wide variety of conifers, balsamic fir Brilliant occupies a special place. This dwarf tree of the original species is unpretentious in care and frost-resistant, which is very important in growing conditions in Russia. Fir will decorate any landscape in compositions with many types of trees, shrubs, flowers.